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|Ab urbe condita||2204|
|Balinese saka calendar||1372–1373|
|English Regnal year||29 Hen. 6 – 30 Hen. 6|
|Chinese calendar||庚午年 (Metal Horse)|
4147 or 4087
— to —
辛未年 (Metal Goat)
4148 or 4088
|- Vikram Samvat||1507–1508|
|- Shaka Samvat||1372–1373|
|- Kali Yuga||4551–4552|
|Japanese calendar||Hōtoku 3|
|Minguo calendar||461 before ROC|
|Thai solar calendar||1993–1994|
1577 or 1196 or 424
— to —
1578 or 1197 or 425
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1451.|
- February 3 – Murad II, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, dies and is succeeded (on February 18) by his son, Mehmed II.
- February 14 – Louis XI of France marries Charlotte of Savoy.
- April 11 – Celje acquires market town status and town rights, by orders from Count Frederic II of Celje.
- April 19 – In the Delhi Sultanate, the Afghan Lodi Dynasty succeeds the Turkish Sayyid Dynasty.
- June 30 – French troops under the Comte de Dunois invade Guyenne, and capture Bordeaux.
- August 20 – The French capture Bayonne, the last English stronghold in Guyenne.
- October – After assassinating Bogdan II of Moldavia, Petru Aron takes up the throne.
- October 28 – Revolt of Ghent: Ghent takes up arms against Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy.
- The University of Glasgow is founded.
- Nicholas of Cusa invents concave lens spectacles, to treat myopia.
- The Great Peacemaker along with Jigonhsasee and Hiawatha, found the Haudenosaunee, commonly called the Iroquois Confederacy
- January 14 – Franchinus Gaffurius, Italian composer (d. 1522)
- January 29 – John, Prince of Portugal, Prince of Portugal (d. 1451)
- February 17 – Raffaello Maffei, Italian theologian (d. 1522)
- March 5 – William Herbert, 2nd Earl of Pembroke, English earl (d. 1491)
- April 22 – Queen Isabella I of Castile, Aragonese queen consort (d. 1504)
- May 2 – René II, Duke of Lorraine (d. 1508)
- May 17 – Engelbert II of Nassau, Count of Nassau-Vianden and Lord of Breda (1475–1504) (d. 1504)
- June 1 – Giles Daubeney, 1st Baron Daubeney (d. 1508)
- July 10 – James III of Scotland (d. 1488)
- September 5 – Isabel Neville, Duchess of Clarence, elder daughter of Richard Neville (d. 1476)
- November 29 – Elisabeth of Brandenburg, Duchess of Württemberg (d. 1524)
- date unknown – Christopher Columbus, Italian explorer (d. 1506)
- January 7 – Antipope Felix V (b. 1383)
- February 3 – Murad II, Ottoman Sultan (b. 1404)
- June – ‘Abdullah, Timurid Empire ruler
- June 8 – Henry II, Count of Nassau-Dillenburg, Co-ruler of Nassau-Dillenburg (1442–1450) (b. 1414)
- July 11 – Barbara of Cilli, Holy Roman Empress, queen consort of Hungary and Bohemia (b. 1392)
- October – Bogdan II of Moldavia, assassinated by Petru Aron
- date unknown