|Ab urbe condita||2059|
|Balinese saka calendar||1227–1228|
|English Regnal year||34 Edw. 1 – 35 Edw. 1|
|Chinese calendar||乙巳年 (Wood Snake)|
4002 or 3942
— to —
丙午年 (Fire Horse)
4003 or 3943
|- Vikram Samvat||1362–1363|
|- Shaka Samvat||1227–1228|
|- Kali Yuga||4406–4407|
|Japanese calendar||Kagen 4 / Tokuji 1|
|Minguo calendar||606 before ROC|
|Thai solar calendar||1848–1849|
1432 or 1051 or 279
— to —
1433 or 1052 or 280
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1306.|
- February 10 – Scottish Wars of Independence: Before the high altar of Greyfriars Church in Dumfries, Robert the Bruce murders John Comyn, his leading political rival, sparking revolution.
- March 25 – Robert the Bruce becomes King of the Scots.
- May – Hugh the younger Despenser, favourite of Edward, Prince of Wales, marries heiress Eleanor de Clare.
- May 15 – One of the first exchange contracts (cambium) to mention the city of Bruges involves two parties: Giovanni Villani, representing the Peruzzi Company, granting a loan to Tommaso Fini, representing the Gallerani Company of Siena.
- June 19 – Battle of Methven: The forces of the Earl of Pembroke defeat Bruce's Scottish rebels.
- June – The Knights Hospitaller conquer the islands of Kos (briefly) and Kastellorizo, and begin their conquest of Rhodes.
- August - September – English army sacks Kildrummy Castle, captures and executes Nigel Bruce brother of Robert I and captures Queen Elizabeth de Burgh, Christina Bruce and Mary Bruce sisters of Robert I and Marjorie Bruce daughter of Robert I.
- September 29 – The Hatuna Games are played in Sweden.
- December 6 – The monetary policy of Philippe le Bel triggers a revolt in Paris. The provost's house is burned, and the king has to flee to the fortress of the Temple .
- Philip IV of France exiles all the Jews from France, and confiscates their property.
- In London, a city ordinance decrees that heating with coal is forbidden when Parliament is in session (the ordinance is not particularly effective).
- The Mongols raid India.
- August 8 – Rudolf II, Duke of Bavaria (d. 1353)
- Isabella, Countess of Brienne, vassal ruler and claimant (d. 1360)
- Ashikaga Tadayoshi, general of the Northern and Southern Courts (d. 1352)
- Sasaki Takauji, Japanese poet, warrior, and bureaucrat (d. 1373)
- February 10 – John "the Red" Comyn, Scottish nobleman
- March – Araniko, Nepali artist (b. 1245)
- March 21 – Robert II, Duke of Burgundy (b. 1248)
- May 5 – Constantine Palaiologos, Byzantine prince and general (b. 1261)
- August 4 – King Wenceslaus III of Bohemia (b. 1289)
- December 6 – Roger Bigod, 5th Earl of Norfolk (b. 1270)
- Robert de Burghersh, 1st Baron Burghersh
- Khutulun, Mongol princess and warrior (b. 1260)
- Luttrell, Anthony (1975). "The Hospitallers at Rhodes, 1306–1421". In Hazard, Harry W. (ed.). A History of the Crusades, Volume III: The fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. University of Wisconsin Press. pp. 278–313. ISBN 0-299-06670-3.
- Favier, Jean (2012). Le Bourgeois de Paris au Moyen Age. Paris: Tallandier. p. 135.
- Nirenberg, David (1998). Communities of violence: persecution of minorities in the Middle Ages. Princeton: Princeton University Press. p. 18. ISBN 0-691-05889-X.
- Holland, John (1841). The history and description of fossil fuel, the collieries, and coal trade of Great Britain. London: Whittaker and Company. pp. 313–314.