|116th United States Congress|
United States Capitol (2020)
|January 3, 2019 – January 3, 2021|
|Senate President||Mike Pence (R)|
|Senate President pro tem||Chuck Grassley (R)|
|House Speaker||Nancy Pelosi (D)|
435 members of the House
6 non-voting delegates
|1st: January 3, 2019 – January 3, 2020|
2nd: January 3, 2020 – present
The 116th United States Congress is the current meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the Senate and the House of Representatives. It convened in Washington, D.C., on January 3, 2019, and will end on January 3, 2021, during the third and fourth years of the Presidency of Donald Trump. Senators elected to regular terms in 2014 are finishing their terms in this Congress, and House seats were apportioned based on the 2010 Census.
In the November 2018 midterm elections, the Democratic Party won a new majority in the House, while the Republican Party increased its majority in the Senate. Consequently, this is the first split Congress since the 113th Congress of 2013–2015, and the first Republican Senate/Democratic House split since the 99th Congress of 1985–1987. This Congress is the youngest incoming class by mean age in the past three cycles and the most demographically diverse ever.
On May 1, 2020, Justin Amash became the first member of Congress to represent a political party other than the Democrats or the Republicans since Rep. William Carney, who served as a Conservative before switching to the Republican Party in 1985. Amash joined the Libertarian Party after serving as an independent since July 4, 2019.
- December 22, 2018 – January 25, 2019: 2018–2019 United States federal government shutdown
- February 5, 2019: 2019 State of the Union Address was delayed from January 29 due to the partial government shutdown.
- February 15, 2019: President Trump declared a National Emergency Concerning the Southern Border of the United States.
- February 27, 2019: Former Trump lawyer Michael Cohen testified before the House Oversight and Reform Committee.
- March 24, 2019: Special Counsel investigation (2017–2019): U.S. Attorney general William Barr issued a summary letter of special counsel Robert Mueller's report to congress on the investigation into Russian interference in the 2016 presidential election.
- July 24, 2019: Special Counsel investigation (2017–2019): Special counsel Robert Mueller testified before the House Judiciary and Intelligence committees.
- September 24, 2019: Impeachment of Donald Trump: House opened an Impeachment inquiry against Donald Trump after a whistleblower alleged the President abused his power in a phone call with the President of Ukraine.
- December 13, 2019: Impeachment of Donald Trump: House Judiciary Committee approved two impeachment articles.
- December 18, 2019: Impeachment of Donald Trump: House impeached President Trump.
- January 16, 2020 – February 5, 2020: Impeachment of Donald Trump: Impeachment trial of Donald Trump
- February 4, 2020: 2020 State of the Union Address
- March 11, 2020 – present: COVID-19 pandemic in the United States
- March 19, 2020 – present: 2020 Congressional insider trading scandal
- May 26, 2020 – present: Nationwide George Floyd protests
- February 15, 2019: Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2019, Pub.L. 116–6, H.J.Res. 31
- March 12, 2019: John D. Dingell, Jr. Conservation, Management, and Recreation Act, Pub.L. 116–9, S. 47
- July 29, 2019: Never Forget the Heroes: James Zadroga, Ray Pfeifer, and Luis Alvarez Permanent Authorization of the September 11th Victim Compensation Fund Act, Pub.L. 116–34, H.R. 1327
- November 27, 2019: Hong Kong Human Rights and Democracy Act, Pub.L. 116–76, S. 1838
- December 20, 2019: National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2020, Pub.L. 116–92, S. 1790
- December 20, 2019: Setting Every Community Up for Retirement Enhancement (SECURE) Act as part of the Further Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2020, Pub.L. 116–94, S. 1865
- January 29, 2020: United States–Mexico–Canada Agreement Implementation Act, Pub.L. 116–113, H.R. 5430
- Coronavirus relief acts:
- March 6, 2020: Coronavirus Preparedness and Response Supplemental Appropriations Act, 2020, Pub.L. 116–123, H.R. 6074
- March 18, 2020: Families First Coronavirus Response Act, Pub.L. 116–127, H.R. 6201
- March 27, 2020: Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act (CARES Act), Pub.L. 116–136, H.R. 748
- April 24, 2020: Paycheck Protection Program and Health Care Enhancement Act, Pub.L. 116–139, H.R. 266
- March 26, 2020: Taiwan Allies International Protection and Enhancement Initiative Act, Pub.L. 116–135, S. 1678
- June 17, 2020: Uyghur Human Rights Policy Act, Pub.L. 116–145, S. 3744
- House Bills
- Senate Bills
- House Joint Resolutions
(With official titles)
- March 15, 2019: H.J.Res. 46: Relating to a national emergency declared by the President on February 15, 2019.
- April 16, 2019: S.J.Res. 7: A joint resolution to direct the removal of United States Armed Forces from hostilities in the Republic of Yemen that have not been authorized by Congress.
- October 31, 2019: Formally commencing an impeachment inquiry against Donald Trump, H.Res. 660
- December 18, 2019: "Impeaching Donald John Trump, President of the United States, for high crimes and misdemeanors", H.Res. 755
- Resignations and new members are discussed in the "Changes in membership" section below.
(shading indicates majority caucus)
|End of previous Congress||47||2||50||99||1|
|Begin (January 3, 2019)||45||2||52||99||1|
|January 8, 2019[a]||53||100||0|
|December 31, 2019[b]||52||99||1|
|January 6, 2020[b]||53||100||0|
|Latest voting share||47.0%||53.0%|
House of Representatives
(shading indicates majority caucus)
|End of previous Congress||196||0||0||236||432||3|
|Begin (January 3, 2019)[c]||235||0||0||199||434||1|
|January 23, 2019[d]||198||433||2|
|February 10, 2019[e]||197||432||3|
|May 21, 2019[d]||198||433||2|
|July 4, 2019[f]||1||197|
|September 10, 2019[c][e]||199||435||0|
|September 23, 2019[g]||198||434||1|
|October 1, 2019[h]||197||433||2|
|October 17, 2019[i]||234||432||3|
|November 3, 2019[j]||233||431||4|
|December 19, 2019[k]||232||198|
|January 13, 2020[l]||197||430||5|
|March 30, 2020[m]||196||429||6|
|April 29, 2020[i]||233||430||5|
|May 1, 2020[f]||0||1|
|May 12, 2020[j][g]||198||432||3|
|May 22, 2020[n]||197||431||4|
|June 23, 2020[h]||198||432||3|
|Latest voting share||53.9%||0.0%||0.2%||45.6%|
- President: Mike Pence (R)
- President pro tempore: Chuck Grassley (R)
- President pro tempore emeritus: Patrick Leahy (D)
Majority (Republican) Leadership
- Majority Leader: Mitch McConnell
- Majority Whip: John Thune
- Republican Conference Chairman: John Barrasso
- Republican Conference Vice Chairman: Joni Ernst
- Policy Committee Chairman: Roy Blunt
- Republican Campaign Committee Chairman: Todd Young
- Steering Committee Chairman: Mike Lee
- Chief Deputy Whip: Mike Crapo
- Deputy Whips: Roy Blunt, Shelley Moore Capito, John Cornyn, Cory Gardner, James Lankford, Martha McSally, Rob Portman, Mitt Romney, Tim Scott, Thom Tillis, Todd Young
Minority (Democratic) Leadership
- Minority Leader/Caucus Chair: Chuck Schumer
- Minority Whip: Dick Durbin
- Assistant Leader: Patty Murray
- Policy Committee Chairwoman: Debbie Stabenow
- Democratic Caucus Vice Chairs: Mark Warner, Elizabeth Warren
- Steering Committee Chairwoman: Amy Klobuchar
- Outreach Chair: Bernie Sanders
- Policy Committee Vice Chairman: Joe Manchin
- Democratic Caucus Secretary: Tammy Baldwin
- Democratic Campaign Committee Chair: Catherine Cortez Masto
- Chief Deputy Whip: Cory Booker, Jeff Merkley, Brian Schatz
House of Representatives
Majority (Democratic) Leadership
- Majority Leader: Steny Hoyer
- Majority Whip: Jim Clyburn
- Assistant Leader: Ben Ray Luján
- Democratic Caucus Chairman: Hakeem Jeffries
- Democratic Caucus Vice Chairman: Katherine Clark
- Democratic Campaign Committee Chairwoman: Cheri Bustos
- Policy and Communications Committee Chairman: David Cicilline
- Policy and Communications Committee Co-Chairs: Matt Cartwright, Debbie Dingell, Ted Lieu
- Steering and Policy Committee Co-Chairs: Rosa DeLauro, Barbara Lee, Eric Swalwell
- Assistant to the Majority Whip: Cedric Richmond
- Senior Chief Deputy Whips: John Lewis, Jan Schakowsky
- Chief Deputy Whips: Pete Aguilar, G. K. Butterfield, Henry Cuellar, Dan Kildee, Sheila Jackson Lee, Debbie Wasserman Schultz, Terri Sewell, Peter Welch
Minority (Republican) Leadership
- Minority Leader: Kevin McCarthy
- Minority Whip: Steve Scalise
- Republican Conference Chairwoman: Liz Cheney
- Republican Conference Vice-Chairman: Mark Walker
- Republican Conference Secretary: Jason Smith
- Policy Committee Chairman: Gary Palmer
- Republican Campaign Committee Chairman: Tom Emmer
- Chief Deputy Whip: Drew Ferguson
Most members of this Congress are Christian (88.2%), with approximately half being Protestant and 30.5% being Catholic. Jewish membership is 6.4%. Other religions represented include Buddhism, Islam, and Hinduism. One senator says that she is religiously unaffiliated, while the number of members refusing to specify their religious affiliation increased.
The Senate includes 74 men and 26 women — the most women to date. In 6 states, both senators are women; 14 states are represented by 1 man and 1 woman; and 30 states are represented by 2 men. During the 116th Congress, Georgia had Johnny Isakson retire, and Kelly Loeffler was appointed. This increased the amount of women from 25 after the 2018 elections to 26. There are 91 non-Hispanic white, 4 Hispanic, 2 black, 2 Asian, and 1 multiracial (Black/Asian) senators. Additionally, 2 senators identify as LGBTQ+.
House of Representatives
There are 101 women in the House, the largest number in history. There are 313 non-Hispanic whites, 56 black, 44 Hispanic, 15 Asian, and 4 American Indian. Seven identify as LGBTQ+. Two Democrats — Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez and Donna Shalala — are the youngest (30) and oldest (78) freshmen women in history. Freshmen Rashida Tlaib (D-MI) and Ilhan Omar (DFL-MN) are the first two Muslim women and freshmen Sharice Davids (D-KS) and Deb Haaland (D-NM) are the first two female American Indian members.
With the election of Carolyn Maloney as the first woman to chair the House Oversight Committee, women now chair a record six House committees in a single Congress (out of 26 women to ever chair House committees in the history of Congress), including representatives Maxine Waters (Financial Services), Nita Lowey (Appropriations), Zoe Lofgren (Administration), Eddie Bernice Johnson (Science, Space and Technology) and Nydia Velázquez (Small Business), as well as Kathy Castor who chairs the Select Committee on the Climate Crisis. In addition, women chair a record 39 House subcommittees. Lowey and Kay Granger are also the first women to serve as chair and ranking member of the same committee in the same Congress since the defunct Select Committee on the House Beauty Shop, which was chaired and populated entirely by congresswomen during its existence from 1967 to 1977.
Diversity of the freshman class
At least 25 new congressional representatives were Hispanic, Native American, or persons of color, and the incoming class included the first Native American women, the first Muslim women, and the youngest woman ever elected. The 116th congress included more women elected to the House than any previous congress.
The numbers refer to their Senate classes. All class 1 seats were contested in the November 2018 elections. In this Congress, class 1 means their term commenced in the current Congress, requiring re-election in 2024; class 2 means their term ends with this Congress, requiring re-election in 2020; and class 3 means their term began in the last Congress, requiring re-election in 2022.
House of Representatives
For further information, see List of current members of the United States House of Representatives.
Changes in membership
|Vacator||Reason for change||Successor||Date of successor's|
|Vacant||Senator-elect chose to wait until finishing term as Governor of Florida.||Rick Scott
|January 8, 2019|
|Incumbent resigned December 31, 2019.
A successor was appointed the same day[o] to continue the term until the November 3, 2020 special election.
|January 6, 2020|
House of Representatives
|District||Vacator||Reason for change||Successor||Date of successor's|
|North Carolina 9||Vacant||Vacant from the start of the term as allegations of fraud in the 2018 general election prevented the results from being certified.
A special election was held September 10, 2019.
|September 17, 2019|
|Pennsylvania 12||Tom Marino
|Resigned January 23, 2019, to take job in private sector.
A special election was held May 21, 2019.
|June 3, 2019|
|North Carolina 3||Walter B. Jones Jr.
|Died February 10, 2019.
A special election was held September 10, 2019.
|September 17, 2019|
|Michigan 3||Justin Amash
|Changed party July 4, 2019.||Justin Amash
|July 4, 2019|
|Wisconsin 7||Sean Duffy
|Resigned September 23, 2019.
A special election was held May 12, 2020.
|May 19, 2020|
|New York 27||Chris Collins
|Resigned October 1, 2019.
A special election was held June 23, 2020.
|Maryland 7||Elijah Cummings
|Died October 17, 2019.
A special election was held April 28, 2020.
|May 5, 2020|
|California 25||Katie Hill
|Resigned November 3, 2019, due to allegations of improper relationships with staffer.
A special election was held March 3, 2020. No candidate received a majority, so a runoff was held May 12, 2020.
|May 19, 2020|
|New Jersey 2||Jeff Van Drew
|Changed party December 19, 2019.||Jeff Van Drew
|December 19, 2019|
|California 50||Duncan D. Hunter
|Resigned January 13, 2020, following felony indictment.||Vacant until the next Congress|
|North Carolina 11||Mark Meadows
|Resigned March 30, 2020, to become White House Chief of Staff.||Vacant until the next Congress|
|Michigan 3||Justin Amash
|Changed party May 1, 2020.||Justin Amash
|May 1, 2020|
|Texas 4||John Ratcliffe
|Resigned May 22, 2020, to become Director of National Intelligence.
||Vacant until the next Congress|
Listed by chamber and then alphabetically by committee name, including chair and ranking member.
House of Representatives
|Committee||Chair||Vice Chair||Ranking Member||Vice Ranking Member|
|Economic||Mike Lee (R-UT)||Carolyn Maloney (D-NY) (until January 16, 2020)
Don Beyer (D-VA) (from January 16, 2020)
|David Schweikert (R-AZ)||Martin Heinrich (D-NM)|
|Inaugural Ceremonies (Special)||Roy Blunt (R-MO)||Nancy Pelosi (D-CA)||Kevin McCarthy (R-CA)||Amy Klobuchar (D-MN)|
|Library||Roy Blunt (R-MO)||Zoe Lofgren (D-CA)||Rodney Davis (R-IL)||Amy Klobuchar (D-MN)|
|Printing||Zoe Lofgren (D-CA)||Roy Blunt (R-MO)||Amy Klobuchar (D-MN)||Rodney Davis (R-IL)|
|Taxation[u]||Richard Neal (D-MA)||Chuck Grassley (R-IA)||Ron Wyden (D-OR)||Kevin Brady (R-TX)|
Employees and legislative agency directors
Also called "elected" or "appointed" officials, there are many employees of the House and Senate whose leaders are included here.
- Chaplain: Barry C. Black (Seventh-day Adventist)
- Historian: Betty Koed
- Parliamentarian: Elizabeth MacDonough
- Secretary: Julie E. Adams
- Sergeant at Arms: Michael C. Stenger
- Secretary for the Majority:
- Secretary for the Minority: Gary B. Myrick
House of Representatives
- Chaplain: Patrick J. Conroy (Roman Catholic)
- Chief Administrative Officer: Phil Kiko
- Historian: Matthew Wasniewski
- Inspector General: Michael Ptasienski
- Parliamentarian: Thomas J. Wickham Jr.
- Reading Clerks: Susan Cole and Joseph Novotny
- Sergeant at Arms: Paul D. Irving
Legislative branch agency directors
- Architect of the Capitol:
- Attending Physician of the United States Congress: Brian P. Monahan
- Comptroller General of the United States: Gene Dodaro
- Director of the Congressional Budget Office:
- Librarian of Congress: Carla Diane Hayden
- Director of the U.S. Government Publishing Office: Vacant
- Counselor of the Office of the Law Revision Counsel: Ralph V. Seep
- Counselor of the Office of House Legislative Counsel: Ernest Wade Ballou Jr.
- Public Printer of the United States: Hugh N. Halpern
- 2018 United States elections (elections leading to this Congress)
- 2019 United States elections (elections during this Congress)
- 2020 United States elections (elections during this Congress, leading to the next Congress)
- 2010s in United States political history
- In Florida: Rick Scott (R) assumed office late January 8, 2019.
- In Georgia: Senator Johnny Isakson (R) resigned December 31, 2019, and Kelly Loeffler (R) was appointed January 6, 2020, to continue the term.
- In North Carolina's 9th district: the November 2018 election results were not certified due to a dispute over voting irregularities. Dan Bishop (R) was elected September 10, 2019.
- In Pennsylvania's 12th district: Tom Marino (R) resigned January 23, 2019, and Fred Keller (R) was elected May 21, 2019.
- In North Carolina's 3rd district: Walter Jones (R) died February 10, 2019, and Greg Murphy (R) was elected September 10, 2019.
- In Michigan's 3rd district: Justin Amash changed parties from Republican to Independent July 4, 2019, then changed to Libertarian May 1, 2020.
- In Wisconsin's 7th district: Sean Duffy (R) resigned September 23, 2019, and Tom Tiffany (R) was elected May 12, 2020.
- In New York's 27th district: Chris Collins (R) resigned October 1, 2019, and Chris Jacobs (R) was elected June 23, 2020.
- In Maryland's 7th district: Elijah Cummings (D) died October 17, 2019, and Kweisi Mfume (D) was elected April 29, 2020.
- In California's 25th district: Katie Hill (D) resigned November 3, 2019, and Mike Garcia (R) was elected May 12, 2020.
- In New Jersey's 2nd district: Jeff Van Drew changed parties from Democratic to Republican December 19, 2019.
- In California's 50th district: Duncan D. Hunter (R) resigned January 13, 2020.
- In North Carolina's 11th district: Mark Meadows (R) resigned March 30, 2020.
- In Texas's 4th district: John Ratcliffe resigned May 22, 2020.
- Loeffler's appointment was "effective December 31, 2019."
- The Minnesota Democratic–Farmer–Labor Party (DFL) is the Minnesota affiliate of the U.S. Democratic Party and its members are counted as Democrats.
- Although Sanders ran for U.S. President in the Democratic primary and claimed to be a "bona fide Democrat" in accordance to DNC rules, he is currently and officially an Independent senator.
- In Michigan's 3rd district: Justin Amash changed from Republican to Independent, July 4, 2019. He became a Libertarian on May 1, 2020.
- In New Jersey's 2nd district: Jeff Van Drew changed from Democratic to Republican, December 19, 2019.
- This is the date the member was seated or an oath administered, not necessarily the same date her/his service began.
- The Joint Taxation Committee leadership rotate the chair and vice chair and the ranking members between the House and Senate at the start of each session (calendar year) in the middle of the congressional term. The first session leadership is shown here.
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- "About the Librarian". Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. 20540 USA. Retrieved September 24, 2019.
- "The White House Announces the Withdrawal of GPO Director Nominee". www.gpo.gov. Retrieved September 24, 2019.
- "Office of Law Revision Counsel". history.house.gov. Retrieved September 25, 2019.
- "Office of House Legislative Counsel". history.house.gov. Retrieved September 25, 2019.
- Official website, via Congress.gov
- Videos of House of Representatives Sessions for the 116th Congress from C-SPAN
- Videos of Senate Sessions for the 116th Congress from C-SPAN
- Videos of Committees from the House and Senate for the 116th Congress C-SPAN
- Congressional Pictorial Directory for the 116th Congress